Why Can’t Ubuntu Install Adobe Flash Player Anymore?

Can’t get Flash Player working in Ubuntu? Ubuntu’s automatic installation of Adobe Flash Player was broken when Adobe released a new version. The installation will report to be successful, but expanding the terminal shows the problem:

Because Adobe Flash Player can not be distributed, the Ubuntu package for Flash Player is just a script that downloads and installs it from Adobe. The problem is that Adobe released a new version of Flash. The script downloads the new version, MD5 hashes the downloaded file, and compares it to the older version’s hash. The hashes being different prevents the installation from proceeding. (I’ve written about MD5 hashes before.)